نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، دانشکده مهندسی پزشکی

2 دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

3 دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران

4 دانشگاه تربیت معلم

10.22041/ijbme.2007.13485

چکیده

در این تحقیق، سنتز تکرارپذیر کلسیم فسفات آمورف کربناتی از طریق استفاده از محلول های حاوی کلسیم و فسفات با غلظت پایین، دمای پایین، pH بالا و خشک کردن به شیوه انجمادی انجام شده است. مابین میزان کربنات به کار رفته در محلول سنتز و کربنات موجود در محصول آمورف یک رابطه غیرخطی وجود داشت. با افزودن مقادیر مختلف کربنات به محلول سنتز، تهیه انواع کلسیم فسفات آمورف کربناتی با مقدار کربنات و نسبت Ca/P متفاوت، مشابه فاز معدنی استخوان، امکان پذیر خواهد بود به طوری که با افزایش مقدار کربنات ورودی به محلول سنتز، نسبت Ca/P رسوب افزایش می یابد. آب باقیمانده در رسوب آمورف خشک شده به روش انجمادی را می توان توسط عملیات حرارتی در دمای بالا خارج کرد بدون آنکه رسوب، ویژگی آمورف بودن خود را از دست دهد. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده از آنالیز عنصری کربن و آنالیز حرارتی، خروج کربنات در محدود دمایی 500-1150°C اتفاق می افتد. انحلال کلسیم فسفات آمورف کربناتی در محیط شبیه سازی شده سلول های جذب استخوان (pH 4.4-5.5) به میزان کربنات و آب باقیمانده وابسته است. در مقادیر بالای کربنات موجود در محصول، میزان انحلال توسط مقدار کربنات کنترل می شود در حالی که در مقادیر کم، حضور آب باقیمانده اثر بیشتری بر میزان انحلال خواهد داشت. سینتیک انحلال کلسیم فسفات های آمورف کربناتی در هر دو حالت«خشک شده به صورت انجمادی» و «عملیات حرارتی شده» در شرایط جذب استخوان توسط نفوذ از لایه محصول کنترل می شود. تشکیل یک نوع کلسیم فسفات آمورف و/ یا دی کلسیم فسفات دی هیدرات به عنوان لایه محصول از جذب کامل کلسیم فسفات آمورف کربناتی جلوگیری می کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Synthesis And Dissolution Kinetics In A Simulated Bone Resorption Medium Of Amorphous Carbonated Calcium Phosphates

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdorreza Sheikh Mehdi Mesgar 1
  • Zahra Mohammadi 2
  • Fathollah Moztarzadeh 1
  • Mahtab Ashrafi Khouzani 3
  • Zeinab Sadat Mohammadi 4

1 Amirkabir University of Technology

2 Iran University of Science and Technology

3 Iran University of Medical Science

4 Tarbiat Moallem University

چکیده [English]

Amorphous carbonated calcium phosphates (ACCPs) with different carbonate contents and Ca/P ratios were reproducible synthesized by the reaction parameters as low temperature, high pH value, using initial solutions of calcium and phosphate at low concentrations, and various amounts of carbonate, as well as freeze drying of the precipitates. The addition of carbonate to the solutions led to form precipitates with higher Ca/P ratios with respect to the initial solutions. Heat treatment of freezedried ACCPs at 500 °C had no influence on their amorphous structure. The results of elemental carbon and thermal analysis showed that the carbonate may be eliminated in a wide range of temperature (500−1150oC). Dissolution rate of ACCPs in the simulated bone resorption medium was dependent to the contents of carbonate and remaining water. Dissolution rate of the specimens with higher carbonate contents was controlled by the carbonate content, but the amount of remaining water had major influence on the dissolution rate of the precipitates with lower carbonate contents. The dissolution kinetics was found to follow a shrinking-core model, with product layer as the ratedetermining step. Formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate and/or thermodynamically desirable dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as possible product layer prevents complete resorption of ACCPs under bone resorption conditions, and promotes osteoblastic activation process through nucleation and growth of biological apatite.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amorphous Carbonated Calcium Phosphates
  • Osteoclasts
  • Dissolution Kinetics
  • Bone Substitutes
  • Bone tissue engineering

[1]     Park JB; Biomaterials Science and Engineering; Plenum Press, New York, Third Printing 1990; 129– 135.

[2]     Freemont AJ; Bone; Current Orthopaedics 1998; 12: 181–192

[3]     Meneghini C, Dalconi MC, Nuzzo S, Mobilio S, Wenk RH; Rietveld Refinement on X-Ray Diffraction Patterns of Bioapatite in Human Fetal Bones; Biophysical Journal March 2003; 84:2021–2029.

[4]     Peters F, Schwarz K, Epple M; The Structure of bone studied with synchrotron X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and thermal analysis; Thermochimica Acta 2000; 131–138.

[5]     Ravaglioli A, Krajewski A, Celotti GC, Piancastelli A, Bacchini B, Montanari L, Zama G, Piombi L; Mineral evolution of bone; Biomaterials 1996; 17:617–622.

[6]     Dorozhkin SV, Epple M; Biological and medical significance of calcium phosphates; Angew Chem Int Ed 2002; 41:3130 3146.

[7]     Temenoff JS, Mikos AG; Injectable biodegradable materials for orthopedic tissue engineering; Biomaterials 2000; 21:2405 2412.

[8]     Vaccaro AR; The role of the osteoconductive scaffold in synthetic bone graft; Orthopedics May 2002; 25(5): 571–578.

[9]     Takagi S, Chow LC, Markovic M, Friedman CD, Constantino PD; Morphological and phase characterization of retrieved calcium phosphate cement implants; J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 2001; 58:36–41.

[10] Vallrt-Regi M, Gonzalez-Calbet JM; Calcium phosphates as substitution of bone tissues; Progress in Solid State Chemistry 2004; 32(1-2):1–31.

[11] Aoki H, Science and medical Application of hydroxyapatite, JAAS, 1991.

[12] Merry JC, Gibson IR, Best SM, Bonfield W; Synthesis and characterization of carbonate hydroxyapatite; Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 1998; 9:779–783.

[13] Nordstrom EG, Karlsson KH; Carbonate-doped hydroxyapatite; Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 1990; 1:182–184.

[14] Barralet J, Knowles JC, Best S, Bonfield W; Thermal decomposition of synthesized carbonate hydroxylapatite; Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2002; 13:529–533.

[15] Burnell JM, Teubner EJ, Miller AG; Normal maturational changes in bone matrix, mineral, and crystal size in the rat; Calcif Tissue Int 1980;31:13–19.

[16] Landi E, Celotti G, Logroscino G, Tampieri A; Carbonated hydroxyapatite as bone substitute; Journal of the European Ceramic Society 2003;23:2931–2937.

[17] Tadic D, Peters F, Epple M; Continuous synthesis of amorphous carbonated apatite; Biomaterials 2002; 23: 2553-2559.

[18] شیخ مهدی مسگر ع، محمدی ز؛ سنتز کلسیم فسفات آمورف و بررسی انحلال‌پذیری در محیط شبیه‌سازی شده اکتیویته استئوکلاستی؛ فصلنامه مهندسی پزشکی زیستی ایران، 1383، دوره اول، شماره اول، 47-55.

[19] Montastruc L, Azzaro-Pantel C, Biscans B, Cabassud M, Domenech S; A thermochemical approach for calcium phosphate precipitation modeling in a pellet reactor; Chemical Engineering Journal 2003;94:41–50.

[20] Schiller C, Epple M; Carbonated calcium phosphate are suitable pH-stabilising fillers for biodegradable polyesters; Biomaterials 2003; 24: 2037–2043.

[21] Hench LL, Wilson J; An Introduction to Bioceramics; World Scientific Publishing Co 1993; 139–148.

[22] Kanzaki N, Treboux G, Onuma K, Tsutsumi, Ito A; Calcium phosphate clusters; Biomaterials 2001; 22: 2921–2929.

[23] Jarcho M, Bolen CH, Thomas MB, Bobick J, Kay JF, Doremus RH; Hydroxyapatite synthesis and characterization in dense polycrystalline form; Journal of Materials Science 1976; 11: 2027–2033.

[24] Correia M, Magalhaes MCF, Marques PAAP, Senos AMR; Wet synthesis and characterization of modified hydroxyapatite powders; Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 1996;7:501–505.

[25] Raynaud S, Champion E, Bernache-Assollant D, Thoams P; Calcium phosphate apatites with variable Ca/P atomic ratio Part I. Synthesis, characterization and thermal stability of powders; Biomaterials 2002; 23: 1065–1072.

[26] Destainville A, Champion E, Bernache-Assollant, Laborde E; Synthesis, characterization and thermal behavior of apatitic tricalcium phosphate; Materials Chemistry and Physics 2003; 80: 269–277.

[27] Christoffersen J, Dohrup J, Christoffersen MR; The importance of formation of hydroxyl ions by dissociation of trapped water molecules for growth of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals; Journal of Crystal Growth 1998; 186: 275–282.

[28] Christoffersen J, Dohrup J, Christoffersen MR; Kinetics of growth and dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite in suspension with variable calcium to phosphate ratio; Journal of Crystal Growth 1998; 186: 283–290.

[29] Landi E, Tampieri A, Celoti G,Vichi L, Sandri M; Influence of synthesis and sintering parameters on the characteristics of carbonate apatite; Biomaterials 2004; 25: 1763–1770.

[30] Schilling AF, Linhart W, Filke S, Gebauer M, Schinke T, Rueger JM, Amling M; Resorbability of bone substitute biomaterials by human osteoblasts; Biomaterials 2004; 25: 3963–3972.

[31] Sikavitsas VI, Temenoff JS, Mikos AG; Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction; Biomaterials 2001; 22: 2581–2593.

[32] Minkin C, Marinho VC; Role of the osteoclast at the bone-implant interface; Adv Dent Res 1999; 13: 49-56.

[33] William J. Boyle W, Simonet S, Lacey DL; Osteoclast differentiation and activation; Nature 2003; 423: 337- 342.

[34] Meghji S, Morrison MS, Henderson B, Arnett TR; pH dependence of bone resorption: mouse calvarial osteoclasts are activated by acidosis; Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 290: 112–119.

[35] Matsumoto T, Okazaki M, Inoue M, Yamaguchi S, Kusunose T, Toyonaga T, Hamada Y, Takahashi J; Hydroxyapatite particles as a controlled release carrier of protein; Biomaterials 2004; 25: 3807–3812.

[36] Yamada S, Heymann D, Bouler JM, Daculsi G; Osteoclastic resorption of calcium phosphate ceramics with different hydroxyapatite / beta-tricalcium phosphate ratios; Biomaterials 1997; 18(15): 1037-41.

[37] Wenisch S, Stahl JP, Horas U, Heiss C, Kilian O, Trinkaus K, Hild A, Schnettler R; In vivo mechanisms of hydroxyapatite ceramic degradation by osteoclasts: fine structural microscopy; Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 2003; 67A(3): 713–8.

[38] Doi Y, Iwanaga H, Shibutani T, Moriwaki Y, Iwayama Y; Osteoclastic responses to various calcium phosphates in cell cultures; Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 1999; 424–433.

[39] Koerten H, van der Meulen J; Degradation of calcium phosphate ceramics; Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 1999; 44:78–86.

[40] Sun JS, Lin FH, Hung TY, Chang WHS, Liu HC; The influence of hydroxyapatite particles on osteoclast cell activities; Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 1999; 45: 311–321.

[41] Xia ZD, Zhu TB, Du JY, Zheng QX, Wang L; Macrophages in degradation of calcium phosphate compound artificial bone: an in vitro study; J Tongji Med Univ. 1994; 14(3): 137–41.

[42] Heymann D, Guicheux J, Rousselle AV; Ultrastructural evidence in vitro of osteoclast-induced degradeation of calcium phosphate ceramic by simultaneous resorption and phagocytosis mechanisms; Histol Histopathol 2001 Jan; 16(1): 37–44.

[43] Levenspiel O; Chemical Reaction Engineering; John Wiley & Sons 1999; 566–586.

[44] Alkan M, Dogan M; Dissolution kinetics of colemanite in oxalic acid solutions; Chemical Engineering and Processing 2004; 43: 867–872.

[45] Demir H, Ozmetin C, Kocakerim MM, Yapici S, Copur M; Determination of a semi empirical kinetics model for dissolution of metallic copper particles in HNO3 solutions; Chemical Engineering and Processing 2004; 43: 1095–1100.

[46] Tunc M, Yapici S, Kocakerim M, Yartasi A; The dissolution kinetics of ulexite in sulphuric acid solutions; Chem Biochem Eng 2001; 4: 175–180.

[47] Tadic D, Epple; Mechanically stable implants of synthesis bone mineral by cold isostatic pressing; Biomaterials 2003; 24: 4565–4571.

[48] Kanzaki N, Onima K, Treboux G, Ito A; Dissolution kinetics of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate under pseudophysiological conditions; J of Crystal Growth 2002; 235: 465–470.

[49] Nancollas GH, Wu W; Biomineralization mechanisms: a kinetics and interfacial energy approach; Journal of Crystal Growth 2000; 211: 137–142.