Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 M.Sc, Mechanics Group, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University

2 Associate Professor, Mechanics Group, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University

3 Assistant Professor , School of Biomedical Engineering , Amirkabir University of Technology Uottawa University, Tehran & Uottawa, Iran & Canada,



Orthopedic screws are widely used devices for fixation of bone fractures. Progressive loosening of bone fixation screws, induced by stress shielding and subsequent adaptive bone remodeling, results in bone loss around the screw. A set of two-dimensional finite element models including cortical and cancellous bone with a functionally graded Ti-Hap screw was developed. A dimensionless set of stress-transfer parameters (STP) and strain energy density-transfer parameter (SEDTP) were developed to quantify the screw–bone load sharing. Lower STP and SEDTP values indicate weak stress and strain energy density transfer to bone which is a sign of stress shielding. The results indicated that STP and SEDTP values for FGM screw are higher than those of a fully metal screw. Moreover, reducing elastic modulus of metal fraction and increasing the volume fraction of ceramic decrease the stress shielding. For a partially graded screw (with both homogenous and FGM parts), the longer FGM part is, the greater are STP and SEDTP values. Furthermore, the results showed that decreasing compositional distribution exponent which shows composition change of FGM content from metal fraction toward ceramic fraction, increases the parameters. Results from this study are in admissible agreement with available clinical and experimental study.


Main Subjects

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