Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 Ph.D Student, Biomedical Engineering Group, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology

2 Associate professor, Biomedical Engineering Group, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology



One major limitation of walker-supported walking using functional electrical stimulation (FES) in paraplegic subjects is the high energy expenditure and the high upper body effort. Paraplegics should exert high amount of hand force to stabilize the body posture and to compensate lack of the sufficient torques at the lower extremity joints. In this paper, we introduce a 2-D musculoskeletal model of walker-assisted FES-supported walking of paraplegics. Using the developed model and an optimal controller, the stimulation patterns are determined such that the tracking errors of lower joint reference trajectories are minimized and the muscle activations and the handle reaction force (HRF) are reduced. Outputs of the optimal controller are stimulation patterns of the lower body muscles and torque acting on the upper body joints. The results show that the HRF and ground reaction force (GRF) generated by simulation are in agreement with the measured HRF and GRF. Moreover, the results indicate that the simulation-generated stimulation patterns of lower body muscles are in consist with the stimulation patterns reported in the literatures.


Main Subjects

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