Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 Amirkabir University of Technology

2 Iran University of Science and Technology

3 Iran University of Medical Science

4 Tarbiat Moallem University



Amorphous carbonated calcium phosphates (ACCPs) with different carbonate contents and Ca/P ratios were reproducible synthesized by the reaction parameters as low temperature, high pH value, using initial solutions of calcium and phosphate at low concentrations, and various amounts of carbonate, as well as freeze drying of the precipitates. The addition of carbonate to the solutions led to form precipitates with higher Ca/P ratios with respect to the initial solutions. Heat treatment of freezedried ACCPs at 500 °C had no influence on their amorphous structure. The results of elemental carbon and thermal analysis showed that the carbonate may be eliminated in a wide range of temperature (500−1150oC). Dissolution rate of ACCPs in the simulated bone resorption medium was dependent to the contents of carbonate and remaining water. Dissolution rate of the specimens with higher carbonate contents was controlled by the carbonate content, but the amount of remaining water had major influence on the dissolution rate of the precipitates with lower carbonate contents. The dissolution kinetics was found to follow a shrinking-core model, with product layer as the ratedetermining step. Formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate and/or thermodynamically desirable dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as possible product layer prevents complete resorption of ACCPs under bone resorption conditions, and promotes osteoblastic activation process through nucleation and growth of biological apatite.


Main Subjects

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