Document Type : Full Research Paper


Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences



Computer simulation of a three dimensional model of the thumb and index finger was used to perform a sensitivity analysis of each joint position to individual muscle activation level. The results were used to study the effect of each muscle on hand posture and select specific muscles to get a desired posture of the hand to assist the implementation of FNS systems. The hand was treated as a multi-body system including rigid segments connected by joints. Each joint was subjected to a total moment including muscle active and joint passive components. The forward approach, in which the equilibrium equations are solved for joint positions as a function of muscle moments, was used. The results showed that at the base joint of the index finger, flexion effect of the extrinsic flexor muscles was about two times of that of the intrinsic muscles. It was also shown that each muscle of the extensor system is individually more effective than the extrinsic flexor muscles. At the more distal joints, intrinsic muscles acted as feeble extensors. At the base joint of the thumb, extensor muscles were much more powerful than the flexor and flexor effect of adductor muscles. Also, abductor muscles were much more effective than the adductors. It was revealed that flexor muscles of the more distal joints are as strong as the extensor muscles. The conclusions are that: the minimum required muscles for appropriate positioning of the hand and for grasp and applying force to objects are limited.


Main Subjects

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