Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 MSc, Biomechanics Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Biomechanics Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran

3 Professor, Biomechanics Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Ergonomy Group, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Orthopaedic Group, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Senior Lecturer, Center for Health, Activity and Rehabilitation Research, School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, New Zealand



Patients with ACL deficiency (ACLD) have to use different compensatory mechanisms to maintain their stability during daily activities. The aim of this study is to determine the differences in 3D kinematics and peak ground reaction forces (GRF) between ACL deficient legs and healthy contralateral legs during stair ascent. Eight subjects with unilateral ACL deficiency participated in this study. Healthy contralateral legs were considered as control group for further comparisons to ACL deficient legs. A six camera VICON motion analysis system and 2 portable force plates were used to record the locomotion while walking up custom-made stairs with two different step heights. Advanced OSSCA technique was used to assess tibiofemoral knee kinematics, a combination of symmetrical axis of rotation (SARA), symmetrical center of rotation estimation (SCoRE) and optimal common shape technique (OCST). The results of this study show that participants with ACLD experienced different kinematics and peak GRFs in different step heights (p<0.05).  During ascending stairs with 17cm height, legs with ACLD exhibited less varus, more external rotation and less impact peak in pre-swing stance and early swing phase compared to contralateral healthy leg (p<0.05). The other stair height, 20 cm, resulted in more extension, more valgus and more external tibia rotation in injured leg compared to contralateral leg during terminal extension of stance phase (p<0.05). In both step heights, injured leg reached it maximum extension peak at an earlier time. The results of this study imply that participants with ACLD make use of different 3D rotational tiobiofemoral kinematics and different GRF compared to healthy contralateral leg. These compensatory mechanisms would finally bring about different knee joint loading, which provides the potential of cartilage degeneration and early osteoarthritis. 


Main Subjects

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