Document Type : Technical note


1 M.Sc Student, Noushirvany University of Technology, Babol, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Noushirvany University of Technology, Babol, Iran



Abstract: The statistical studies indicate that diseases, accidents and wares are the principal causes to increase the number of amputees in the world. These studies also show that the most of mutilation disabilities are related to musculoskeletal. Obesity, sedentary, lack of proper exercise as well as the risk of some diseases, cause weaken in knee muscles and other difficulties of this hand. As a consequence, the knee muscles can`t apply a mighty torque to accomplish knee motion.The objective of this study is to propose a proper solution to improve the life quality of those who suffer from weak knees. In this study, by investigating the biomechanical behavior of a healthy foot in a normal gait, the indispensable power which can enforce a 50% weak Knee to achieve the same gait can be calculated. In order to naturalize the mentioned knee, a new control-active orthosis is designed. The proposed design is specified by an electromechanical actuator and an elastic component articulated in a light weight four-bar mechanism.  Its mechanical behavior is tested in a simulated walking gait and the optimum value of elastic coefficient is estimated as 7KN/m. In this case, the maximum torque applicable to knee joint has increased by 34 per cent.


Main Subjects

[1] Winter, D. A. and Sienko, S. E., “Biomechanics of below-knee amputee gait,” J Biomechanics. 21, 361–367., 1988
 [2] Hugh Herr1, “Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions “.Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2009, 6:21
[3] Farley, C.T. & Ferris, D.P ‘Biomechanics of Walking and Running: from Center of Mass Movement to Muscle Action’, Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, pp.26:253-285. (1998)
[4] Adam Zoss, “On the Mechanical Design of the Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton (BLEEX) “, Andrew ChuDepartment of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA
[5] Weinberg B. Design, Control and Human Testing of an Active Knee Rehabilitation Orthotic Device. 2007 IEEE International Conference on FrC8.2Robotics and Automation Roma, Italy, 10-14 April 2007
[6] Flowers, W.C., and Mann, R.W., “Electro hydraulic knee-torque controller for a prosthesis simulator,” ASME        Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 3-8., 1977.
[7] Wilian M. dos Santos and Adriano A. G. Siqueira, “Impedance Control of a Rotary Series Elastic Actuator for Knee Rehabilitation “, Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of International Federation of Automatic Control Cape Town, South Africa. August 24-29, 2014
[8] Berend Denkena, Martin Eckl, Dominik Brouwer, “Development of a Multiple Degree of Freedom Knee Disarticulation Prosthesis with Active Leg Length Variation “.Journal of  Modern Mechanical Engineering, 2014, 4, pp 207-221
[9]Arumugom.S, Muthuraman.S, Ponselvan.V, “Modeling and Application of Series Elastic Actuators for Force Control Multi Legged Robots “,Journal of Computing, Vol 1, ISSUE 1, December 2009, ISSN: 2151-9617, pp 26-33
[10] Jerry E. Pratt, Benjamin T. Krupp, “Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots “, Proceedings of  SPIE 2004, Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5422, Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology VI, DOI: 10.1117/12.548000, 2 September 2004,
[11] Jerry E. Pratt, Benjamin T. Krupp, Christopher J. Morse, Steven H. Collins, “The RoboKnee: An Exoskeleton for Enhancing Strength and Endurance During Walking “,Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation New Orleans, LA.USA, April 2004
[12] Glenn Mathijssen, Pierre Cherelle, Dirk Lefeber and Bram Vanderborght, “Concept of a Series-Parallel Elastic Actuator for a Powered Transtibial Prosthesis “.Journal of Actuators 2013,Vol, 2, ISSN 2076-0825,  pp 59-73
[13] Ernesto C. Martinez-Villalpando, SM;1 Hugh Herr, “Agonist-antagonist active knee prosthesis: A preliminary study in level-ground walking “, Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, Volume 46, Number 3, 2009, pp 361–374
[14] Jeakweon Han, Dennis Hong , “ Development of a Full-Sized Bipedal Humanoid Robot Utilizing Spring Assisted Parallel Four-Bar Linkages with Synchronized Actuation “, Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2011, Washington, DC, USA, August 28-31, 2011
[15] Xin Liu and Ioannis Poulakakis, “On the Energetics of a Switchable Parallel Elastic Actuator Design for Monopedal Running “, Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO) September 2015
[16] Bram Vanderborght1,2, Nikos G. Tsagarakis1, Claudio Semini1, Ronald Van Ham 2, Darwin G. Caldwell, “MACCEPA 2.0: Adjustable Compliant Actuator with Stiffening Characteristic for Energy Efficient Hopping “, Proceedings of 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation Kobe International Conference Center Kobe, Japan, May 12-17, 2009
[17] Popovic, D. and Schwirtlich, L., “Belgrade active A/K prosthesis, “in de Vries, J. (Ed.), Electrophysiological Kinesiology, Interm. Congress Ser. No. 804, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp.337–343, 1988.
[18] J. Chen and W.-H. Liao, "Design and control of a Magnetorheological actuator for leg exoskeleton," in Robotics and Biomimetics, 2007. ROBI 2007. IEEE:International Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1393.
[19] Kamran Shamaei" Design and Evaluation of a Quasi-Passiveb Knee Exoskeleton for Investigation ofMotor Adaptation in Lower Extremity Joints"IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 61, NO. 6, JUNE 2014
[20] Gilchrist, L.A. and D.A. Winter, A two-part, viscoelastic foot model for use in gait simulations. Journal of Biomechanics, 1996. 29(6): p. 795-8.