Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 M.Sc., Department of Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran



People who suffer from leg length discrepancy (LLD) due to the shortening of one side of the lower extremities change their movement pattern because of using compensatory mechanisms. Methods such as manipulating a compensating insole are used to correct the movement pattern to normal. Therefore, the knowledge of movement pattern changes in with and without using of insoles can help to develop rehabilitation methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of the lower extremities of people with leg length discrepancy during stair climbing with and without using insoles. Twenty participants including 10 normal and 10 LLD people took part in this study. Their movement on stair was recorded using a 7 camera 3-D motion analysis system. Changes in the angles of the hip, the knee and the ankle joints were calculated by the 7-member Euler model and compared by independent and paired sample t-test at 95% confidence level. The results showed that there was a significant difference between healthy people and people with LLD without using insoles. These people had higher extension of the knee, pelvis and ankle at the initial contact and toe off in sagittal plane and more knee and pelvis range of movement, less adduction of the knee and pelvis at the initial contact in frontal plane, higher internal and external rotation of pelvis at the initial contact and ankle in toe off in horizontal plane (p<0.05). The results also showed that maximum abduction of the pelvis and maximum adduction of the ankle, maximum internal rotation and the value of the angle of the knee and ankle had no significant different between normal and LLD people (p>0.05) when using insoles. Therefore, the use of insoles can correct some parameters of the movement pattern of the lower joints. 


Main Subjects

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