Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, School of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Corrective Exercise and Rehabilitation Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran



Biomechanical modeling of human joints has been considered for a long time by researchers due to its high importance and application. Therefore, methods of modeling joints, and kinematic and dynamic analysis of human movement have continuously been developing. In this paper, a biomechanical human knee model is developed, and a generic procedure for dynamic analysis of contact problems in combination with the musculoskeletal model is introduced. The development of this knee dynamic model includes the geometric expression of collision curves and an algorithm for determining collision points. This presentation addresses cartilage penetration depth and contact force calculation through nonlinear discontinuous contact law. Therefore, the femur and tibia's relative motion is modeled through the combined collision reactions of cartilage and bone in the knee. Moreover, two knee models, the novel curve fitted-plane contact model, and the spherical-plane contact model, have been compared, and a personalized model has been developed for such cases as knee osteoarthritis. There is a difference (average 12%) between the results of the enhanced model and the sphere on the plane model in the cartilage penetration. In the simulation, maximum penetration depth in a healthy knee is reported to be 0.705 mm, while in a 75% KOA is 0.521 mm, including 0.5 mm cartilage-cartilage contact and 0.021 mm bone-bone contact. The contact force is not increased in KOA despite the general belief. The cartilage penetration depth exceeds cartilage thickness, and the bone-bone contact leads to pain. It is a suitable tool for the analysis and control of the auxiliary device in order to control the relative motion of the tibia femur and their separation in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.


Main Subjects

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