Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 BSc, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 2Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) have been widely used in development of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). However, it is still a research challenge to have visual stimuli which provide strong SSVEP response while produce little eye fatigue. In this study, rectangular, sinosoidal, sawtooth waveforms applied to a LED were compared with sum of two sinusoidals and a frequency modulated waveform to determine the most appropriate visual stimulus for realization of a BCI system. Moreover, circular, ring and anti-phase two rectangular flickers were generated by Cogent toolbox on a laptop screen and compared. Experiments were performed on 12 participants to determine the SSVEP response and eye fatigue corresponding to each of these visual stimuli. Experiments with the waveforms demonstrate that sum of two sine waves generated significantly lower SSVEP amplitude, but the responses for other four waveforms were not significantly different. On the other hand, the frequency modulated waveform resulted in the least eye fatigue significantly lower from other waveforms. Therefore, considering both criteria, frequency modulated waveform can provide superor performance in a BCI system with an average response of 17.3 pV2 and 1.58 fatigue level in a 1-4 fatigue scale.
Experiments with visual stimuli on LCD showed that circular stimuli provided highest and anti-phase rectangular the lowest response. But all of them produced high levels of eye fatigue. Although, Circular stimuli had the highest power (26.7pV2) but due to its related high eye fatigue (3.8) it is not recommended for practical applications. In conclusion it is recommended to use frequency modulated visual stimuli for development of practical BCI systems to satisfy both strong response and low eye fatigue criteria.


Main Subjects

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